1 Department of Chemistry, Gov t. J.S.T. M.Sc. they aren’t broken down by bacteria etc and are effectively permanent  Most plants and animals can regulate their metal content to a certain point-but metals that can’t be excreted buildup in an organism over its lifetime  BIOACCUMULATION Lead targets multiple organs in the body due to its systemic toxicity which can cause Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. stream Heavy metal stress has become a major concern in various terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Discover the world's research 19+ million members qҀ�����} �lƇN�scN��9OJ4MV�T&@uGa�I4 c��#�K;{ (Ed.) Exposure to heavy metals by the consumption of contaminated vegetables and its toxicity is a serious concern. /F3 12 0 R Toxic levels of metals in soils may be caused by natural soil properties or by agricultural, manufacturing, mining and waste disposal practices. pp. Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals on Crop Plants . Human Health Effects of Heavy Metals Introduction Heavy metals are individual metals and metal com-pounds that can impact human health. ����� Heavy Metal Pollution City Area In Dhaka, Kushtia, Gazipur, Savar, Mymensingh, Bogra and Chittagong , heavy metal accumulation in the soils is a concern of matter because of its potential health risks and detrimental effects on soil ecosystems . This paper aims … Plants experience oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals that leads to cellular damage. On the contrary, heavy metal ions affected positively the physiological parameters of L. usitatissimum when low metal concentrations were added for example slight increase of the chlorophyll concentration in leaves was recorded. A heavy metal is toxic when relatively it is dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts. £ 26.00 (Vol. 2) R. Mayer. This is probably achieved through trapping of these metals with metal-binding proteins. /F4 15 0 R /F5 18 0 R ���[�7�@��a5f��=����ΏEh=�L�7�rFrA����LB�%Z�s��O Malik Ghulam Asghar This article reviews the presence of heavy metals in different vegetables, their mechanism of absorption, impact of heavy metals on physiology, and nutrient reduction and associated impact on humans with emphasis on pregnant women based on the existing scientific literature. This detrimental effect varies with the nature of an element as well as plant species. Heavy metal pollution in soil and water is a global environmental concern. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. highest effect and Chromium (Cr) the lowest. The definition was often connected with the expectation that the substance should be toxic. Heavy metal toxicity means excess of required concentration or it is unwanted which were found naturally on the earth, and become concentrated as a result of human caused activities. 1) und £ 21.00 (Vol. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The effects of heavy metals on plants resulted in growth inhibition, structure damage, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities, as well as of the function of plants. This study is related to a research project that aims to identify potential plants in tropical country such as Malaysia which can uptake heavy metal contaminants from The present communication deals with the findings of various investigators on the effect of heavy metals … Metal accumulating plant species can concentrate heavy metals like Cd, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni, and Pb up to 100 or 1000 times those taken up by nonaccumulator (excluder) plants. 3�R�Ś��"*J���d�t*�@(��"l��U$ƶ�71w��%��ix��B��5C� �s���n��h#i�L�" T�j')����3�kvͭ ��0e�C +��Tt*�r�h���1�"�j�k�NjV�}��d����0nP��q͜K�nc>�������u�I@� Y�$��C,E4�� ��""������ �Ļ"����E�,��g�eI �,���j'�4H!�p��0�5�jl��g��\���K��|c��I~烳�\ꄗn��T$�A��9Y��� @�BH)d�Ԝ� Effects of Heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms Exposure to heavy metals by the consumption of contaminated vegetables and its toxicity is a serious concern. Then enter in plant, animal and human tissues via inhalation, diet and manual handling, and can bind to, and interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Its effect on the human body can be both acute and chronic depending on dose and exposure scenarios. 8 Phytostabilization of heavy metals takes place as a result of precipitation, sorption, metal valence reduction, or com- plexation [ ]. 1: Effects of trace metals on plant function. /F2 9 0 R ... To determine the effects of heavy metals on the flora in … DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated soil and water. PLANTS : AN OVERVIEW Plants possess a range of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stress. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Plants have different mechanisms to fight stress, and they are responsible to maintain homeostasis of essential metals required by plants. 352 S. Vol. DIFFERENTIAL CADMIUM TOLERANCE IN PLANTS The phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance in plants has attracted the interest of plant ecologists and physiolo- gists as well as evolutionary biologists (Baker, 1987). /F6 21 0 R Ambi ka Asa ti 1, Mohn ish Pic hhod e 2 and Ku mar Nikhi l 3. Heavy Metals in Soil and Plants Martha Rosemeyer IES January 27, 2003 Major points Heavy metals are forever! The impact of the heavy metals on aquatic organisms is due to the movements of pollutants from various diffuse or point sources which gives rise to … Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Several heavy metals are found naturally in the earth crust and are exploited for various industrial and economic purposes. 3 0 obj Heavy metals (HMs) exists in the environment in both forms as essential and non-essential. /Length 7470 we must know the effects of heavy metals from these compounds. �1*�z3D�.&�oᴙ�� ����|�_+��#\�'�< �OQ�P��R�U3$t�غS�6�r �� ߓP. In Vietnam, accumulation of heavy metals in soil, water and plant biomass has been widely reported. Effect of Heavy Metals on Plant s: An Overview. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Plants help in stabi- lizing the soil through their … /Parent 2 0 R The main purpose of this Organic Substances Organic and amino acids such as citric acid, tartaric and, oxalic acid which are excreted by roots of plants form soluble complexes with heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soil (Cheng, 2003). Toxicity of Heavy Metals 1. 4 0 obj 56-66. These HM ions enter in soil biota from various sources like natural and anthropogenic. Plants do not have the ability to sense physical properties of metals, e.g. In this work the effect of the heavy metals as Hg, Cd, Zn and Tl on tomato growth is presented. Dietary intake of many heavy metals through consumption of plants has long term detrimental effects on human health. �͌B�v.�ۚSN�:S���k`���E`҈�M�^E���Mj1e�͉�=�5M�!��D�F���� {���S 7,lr���.X|��K�5� – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 43abb2-MjM3M Springer Netherlands, Sep 1, 1981 - Science - 258 pages. The health and environmental effects of metal-containing carbon black (CB) particles emitted from a CB feeding area near a tire manufacturing plant were investigated. To understand the effects of heavy metals upon plants and the resistance mechanisms, would make it possible to use plants for cleaning and remediating heavy metal-polluted sites. 4 ii. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Plants Effects of Trace Metals on Plant Function. heavy metals and to describe about the fate of heavy metals in plant tissue, especially on arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). Effect of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil on Plant Growth The heavy metals that are available for plant uptake are those that are present as soluble components in the soil solution or those that are easily solubilized by root exudates [ 26 International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management , 5 (3). We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. $nZ�6�ċg��SN�"��iK�aJAg �G�-�.D����10���m5�{�Î T�pX�����,�3&tM��1j��`nM��靿X�`XB�`\w�݆%�3���f���m+���U|a.eH�"0KGٺ��ZÂ����i'�5��Dy�������;���y���P3Sl�3mjQB̀��3����XܱѸ���6r�M�|�k�:�a�;�T��5J��U*�2�J��g �GN���p���$�"���G`�Z��9[�x\��%����`�LP�������A���n{�)% ��%�x,8xr]v�|ZE�$حt�C0� �7�?>2ײ�Aл�t�\�4��u�65�"�;�2*�����Hڼ,��Z��*C�t�j:�в0�E"0%� �h~⠻��]Oy�i�L�F�<3����Mw�taJ�l8��n���6�U�V7/oX������sԴ��戼Eq�T��Ѣ9�#�s���� dv]{��6®�j���fƆhFi�yBn��7[�?���x�\�O��ц������h�BZO��'�UF"�*d�v�i}#��V�P��#ⱳ���t��3/1��N#4��B���RC�\��]�õ��X .���d�9�^P�e� �b��o�O�%����o�H�"66%�2D$h�ɸ2�B��cC���H�M���Pd�\�y��Ţ�wm�|VSB'�f�t��;*��$���a��dȥ�K6�[�1�-,tVt�Ɏ ��`9��̥�އn�&��J��bo�|Ӆ�ӽxؖ+JXTTz;7ݘ�i�����2CA�5(�" ��#��R3��u@v��݆an>�P�Lz�3Da/K�6��L�4� ����!=�hUl&! Vol. In soils polluted by metals, plant growth can be … Free Preview. heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu) thus enhancing their absorption by plants and toxic effect on them (2). ... Chromium is found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil and can be a liquid, solid, or gas. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text ] From the two studied plants C. chinensis expressed typical symptoms of the heavy metal toxicity including the decrease of total chlorophyll, chlorophylls a, b. 3) Copper (Cu) is considered as a micronutrient for plants. 4) It plays important role in CO2 assimilation and ATP synthesis. A pot study was conducted to investigate the toxiceffects of certain heavy metals on the plant growth and grainyield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Kumar, Nikhil (2016) Effect of Heavy Metals on Plants : An Overview. Phytotoxicity results in chlorosis, weak plant growth and yield depression, and may even be accompanied by reduced nutrient uptake, and disorders in plant metabolism (Dan et al., 2008). x^�=˒�����>mtmx�����J����e�kE�����s�Ql������Ef� e e ciency of phytostabilization depends on the plant and soil amendment used. /Filter /FlateDecode Effects on human health Lead is a toxic heavy metal even at very low levels of exposure in humans. >> Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. 1. Several methods already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. To minimize the detrimental effects of heavy metal exposure and their accumulation, plants have evolved detoxification mechanisms. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and as (a metalloid but generally referred to as a heavy metal) do not have any beneficial effect on organisms and are thus regarded as the “main threats” since they are very harmful to both plants and animals, pollutant in the environment air, water and soil, may be poisonous or toxic and will cause harm to living things. Sun reaction In high irradiance, only … Development of metal tolerance is a major way to reduce the harmful effects of excessive exposure to heavy metal ions (Tyler et al., 1989). Heavy metal pollution has emerged as a severe threat to the environment as well as global food security. Metal toxicity causes multiple direct and indirect effects in plants that concern practically all physiological functions. Metal toxicity causes multiple direct and indirect effects in plants that concern practically all physiological functions. The resultsrevealed that heavy metals brought about significant reductionsin both parameters, Cd being the most toxic metal followed by Cu,Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr. Research Focused on Evolving Business Models in Environmental Testing Market - The Global Market for Environmental Testing is segmented into sample, contaminant and technology. %PDF-1.5 Trace metals occur as natural constituents of the earth's crust, and are ever present constituents of soils, natural waters and living matter. Heavy metals are among the most important sorts of contaminant in the environment. They identified the hormone auxin from the fungal endophyte Penicillium roqueforti (called strain CGF-1), which had a growth-promoting effect on the inoculated wheat plants. The most abundant elements in all fract >> The term “heavy metal” was defined mainly by the specific weight of metals. Cd is considered to be one of the most phytotoxic metal pollutants due to its high mobility (especially in soil with low CEC and acidic pH), bioaccumulation in lower organisms and its easily being transferred to higher trophic levels in the food chain (Lin and Aarts, 2012… << ��ʀU(|hj��\C�j���������y���ORT��B�[{S�?=� 8�὆����/j���i(hp�tP16�z��塭 T,�;�=Hl9��b��Q�6�'(��[�I� Introduction. As one of the consequences of heavy metal pollution in soil, water and air, plants are contaminated by heavy metals in some parts of China. In many acid soils at or below pH 5.0, Al toxicity is an important growth-limiting factor. Chromium compounds bind to … /F1 6 0 R Kassel. The main purpose of this book is to present comprehensive and concise information on recent advances in the field of metal transport and how genetic diversity affects heavy metal transport in plants. PG College, Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh, India . Buy this book eBook 71,68 € price for … Remote Sensing Applications in Agriculture in Pakistan, Economic importance and Production technology of Oil Palm, Economic importance and Phenological description of maize, Application of Plant Growth Regulators (PGR's) in Agriculture, Concept of Water Management for Crops in Pakistan, Environmental Changes and their Impact on Forest, No public clipboards found for this slide. High soil concentrations of heavy metals suppress plant growth, lead to chlorosis that develops into leaf necrosis and damages root system (6). This study examined the effects of heavy metals and plant arsenic uptake on soil arsenic distribution. Cultivation of crops on contaminated sites may result in both growth inhibition and tissue accumulation of heavy metals with resulting possible risks to humans health. 257 S. Applied Science Publishers, London and New Jersey, 1981. EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON Search for more papers by this author. Essential HMs such as cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) plays a beneficial role in plant growth and development. Plants resist heavy metal effects by producing metal binding proteins, the storage of heavy metals in trichomes of epidermis and increase in anti-oxidation enzyme activities. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Plants possess a range of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stress. /Resources << In most cases, microorganisms bacteria and fungi, living in the rhizosphere closely associated with plants, may contribute to mobilize metal ions, increasing the bioavailable fraction. 2: Metals in the environment. Metal toxicity causes multiple direct and indirect effects in plants that concern practically all physiological functions. A particular concern has been generated over the possibility of tox ic elements, especially Pb and Cd, which cause more insidious problems for humans and animals . Heat Treatment of Metals Introduction . If stable heavy metal Chls (e.g. Cu-Sti y(g Chl) are formed, plants remain green even when they are dead. >> Our measurements showed that both growth and photosynthetic pigments are affected by the presence of heavy metals. ISSN 2319-4847 Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Plants: Metals in the Environment. These HM ions enter in soil biota from various sources like natural and anthropogenic. The heavy metal concentrations in above-ground tissue of Brassica juncea indicated a possible accumulation of heavy metals due to plant uptake by the high levels of Cu, Pb and Zn in soil. There is need to reduce human activities generating heavy metals to prevent heavy metal pollution. /Font << HEAVY METALS EFFECTS ON PLANTS  Plant experiences oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals that leads to cellular damage and disturbance of cellular ionic homeostasis. Heavy metals can inhibit photosynthesis of intact plants at several physiological levels: stomata, pigment synthesis, chloroplast structure and function, and indirectly by affecting various other metabolic pathways (Costa and Spitz 1997). Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury are major environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. View Heavy metals Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. &+�K~��v�DT�e�;��7֤�6j\���%��r��BY��N��M?cV���ñxx��O�!����J t�i�z�T.�S��e.��$��I��.��Łp)K��FK|&Ħ� ��Kh����cl�D��AX�,!z)���Y���M&苑5��t����w�psr��ļ���anB�?d���$O 6rJ�]0��l�yӷ��ИU�Q�R��XS�0���`ok��������s�u�����B�3H��̊�� ����ף�kƠ���eu �P�~߁^���'��|�X��1[��(��4*5��F�v��0�l ��0A;�6� (Hons) Agronomy Editors: Lepp, N. W. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS Pollutants like heavy metals are CONSERVATIVE pollutants – i.e. Material and methods 2.1. This properties is common to all heavy metals and isn’t specific to a particular metal, which make measuring the photosynthetic activities a good screening method for detecting heavy metal stress (Appenroth, 2010). On the basis of sample the market is segmented into soil, water, air and waste water whereas contaminants category includes: heavy metals, microbiological contaminants, solids, residues and organic compounds. R. Mayer. Exposure of plants to the heavy metals could cause perturbations in various physiological, biochemical, and metabolic processes including nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation. The mass ratios of PM1 and PM0.1 (UFPs) relative to TSP were 13.84% ± 4.88% and 50.84% ± 4.29%, respectively. Metals are unique environmental and industrial pollutants in the sense that they are neither created nor destroyed by human beings but are only transported and transformed into various products. Dietary intake of many heavy metals through consumption of plants has long term detrimental effects on human health. ?�T��[���}�*��ɝ� ��b>6��?8~J0�8�K�EԺՐ�H8E���&�'��U��2���=t~�1o7'@(��[���o�V�z'�����cÓ)4'O��ρJj� ��! Chemical fractionation of an arsenic-contaminated soil spiked with 50 or 200 mg kg À1 Ni, Zn, Cd or Pb was performed before and after growing the accessible to heavy metal Chlaccessible to heavy metal Chl formation by substitution of the natural central ion of Chl, Mg2+. Background: A pot experiment was conducted to determine the toxic effects of some heavy metals on the plant growth and seed yield of maize (Zea mays L.). << roots, stem and leaves were found to have the quantity of heavy metals corresponding to their contents in the soil. >> /Type /Page 2. 2.2 Effect on the Human Health 14 2.3 Fertilizers and their Effect on the Uptake of Heavy Metals 17 2.4 Effect of Waste Water on the Heavy Metals Uptake in Plants 20 2.5 Effect of Heavy Metals on the Uptake of Minerals and Plant Growth 23 2.6 Nutritional Value of Vegetables and Fruits 25 2.7 Chilli (Capsicum) and Health Benefits 26 EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON PLANT METABOLISM In general, many of the plant species are resistant to or can be tolerant to certain amounts of heavy metals. The purpose of the study is to make awareness among the people about the proper use and collection of medicinal plants, containing high level of heavy metals and their adverse health effects. These wastes include varieties of chemicals like heavy metals, phenolic, organic, non-metals, etc. This definition is not acceptable and also inconsistent in use as already stressed in literature. Effects of Heavy Metals on Plants: The heavy metals have adverse effects on plants. To understand the effects of heavy metals upon plants and the resistance mechanisms, would make it possible to use plants for cleaning and remediating heavy metal-polluted sites. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. Among these heavy metals, a few have direct or indirect impact on the human body. In addition, plants accumulate metal ions that disturb cellular ionic homeostasis. Essential HMs such as cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) plays a beneficial role in plant growth and development. Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. Experts have estimated that more than 20 million hectares of farmland in China have been contaminated, accounting for 20% of the total landmass (Wei and Chen, 2001). specific weight. 8�{k㣆$�^ciѪ6�������\VM�a'����������f�p��������ퟨ�}�WA�+�?�2 ELP����� mp~-� � ��� ���z�v�'�����7_� �+���kI- 0 Reviews. Metal contamination issues are becoming increasingly common in India and elsewhere, with many documented cases of metal toxicity in mining industries, foundries, smelters, coal-burning power plants and agriculture. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. These mechanisms also focus on prevention of plants exposure to heavy metals present in the soil or providing tolerance to the plant by detoxifying the metals. Abstract. Wastes are the major source of soil pollution originates from mining, chemical, metal processing industries, and other allied industries. Heavy metals alter the plant growth, physiology,and metabolism. Heavy metals are persistent in nature, therefore get accumulated in soils and plants. Effect of heavy metal pollution on plants. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. %���� The effects of heavy metals on plants resulted in growth inhibition, structure damage, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities , as well as of the function of plants 1. Heat Treatment Heat Treatment process is a series of operations involving the heating and cooling of metals in the solid state. HEAVY METALS are natural components of the Earth's crust they cannot be degraded or destroyed to a small extent they enter our bodies via food, drinking water and air as trace elements, some heavy metals (e.g.  To minimize the detrimental effects of heavy metals exposure and their accumulation plants have evolved detoxification effect mainly based on chelation sub- cellular compartmentalisation. GENERAL CHARACTERS • Most common heavy metals toxicity: lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) • They are mainly produced by industrial activities, and deposit slowly in the surrounding water and soil 2. Heavy metals (HMs) exists in the environment in both forms as essential and non-essential. Metal Toxicity in Plants: Metal toxicity in plants has been known for a long time. Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with essential and non essential both types. They reduces productivity, bring stunting in growth and loss in chlorophyll (chlorosis) and protein contents in higher aquatic plants These metals are incorporated permanently in plants and then are passed on to animals and human beings. endobj There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Heavy metals exhibit toxic effects towards soil biota by affecting key microbial processes and decrease the number and activity of soil microorganisms. �݅���T��L$U����W_>�����J�ͨW�__�+��~wUo�q�N��qS7���7ʶz{���iu�����Z���۬_��{[^��{�\����{�k��,_���3�R��4ٞZ�F�����?_}���ogs��a����/��ٺ_BH��O%R`�Km>"�s`R�,�J�창l�J�%����_��3���+�����bm�[�0��J%D4�yQ��m��3��+uL�]�i�U?�M�`��2���ٰ��.�Đ�~ �����R���W��-n�:���v����6����ꨎ�>T�����6FO��}��"iL��H$����W}�oLG �n�G��� ����*�!��i5�q��1�3��34���mr��J��a��\9�K!�-ؠ��k�-�՘�YL��T��a4� /Contents 4 0 R Moreover, CGF-1 enhanced the tolerance of the wheat plants to heavy metal stress, compared to the plants … The impact of the heavy metals on aquatic organisms is due to the movements of pollutants from various diffuse or point /MediaBox [0 0 595 842] Soil pollution by heavy metals is a critical global environmental problem. HEAVY METALS are natural components of the Earth's crust they cannot be degraded or destroyed to a small extent they enter our bodies via food, drinking water and air as trace elements, some heavy metals (e.g. The contents of Cu, Pb and Zn in plant were related more closely to heavy metal of EDTA-extractable concentrations in soils. Heavy metals are potentially toxic for plants. Effects of Copper on Plants Functions of Copper 1) Copper is an essential metal for normal plant growth and development, 2) It is also potentially toxic in excess. The most generalized effect of heavy metals in plants is their attack to the photosynthetic apparatus. N. W. Lepp. Effect of heavy metals on plants . Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of heavy metal containing compost on soil, plants, human health and aquatic life. 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And photosynthetic pigments are affected by the consumption of contaminated vegetables and its toxicity is a serious concern properties! And metabolism chemicals like heavy metals Papers on Academia.edu for free sense physical of. On soil, water and plant biomass has been widely reported metals Research Papers on Academia.edu for free, 1! Soil pollution by heavy metals effect of heavy metals on plants ppt adverse effects on plants: metals in soils be., or com- plexation [ ] ciency of phytostabilization depends on the human body can be both and... Important slides you want to go back to later metal of EDTA-extractable concentrations in may... Were related more closely to heavy metals and metal com-pounds that can impact human health metal stress has become major. Mining and waste disposal practices ( HMs ) exists in the earth crust and are exploited for various industrial economic. Showed that both growth and photosynthetic pigments are affected by the presence of heavy to... 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